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The Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), abbreviated Gestapo (German: [ɡəˈʃtaːpo]; /ɡəˈstɑːpoʊ/),[2] was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe. [101] In Würzburg, which is one of the few places in Germany where most of the Gestapo records survived, every member of the Gestapo was a career policeman or had a police background. [110] The majority of Gestapo informers were not full-term informers working undercover, but were rather ordinary citizens who chose to denounce other people to the Gestapo. del fronte militare della resistenza diede tutto se stesso all’organizzazione. Three—Walther Funk, Rudolf Hess, Erich Raeder—received life terms; and the remaining four—Karl Dönitz, Konstantin von Neurath, Albert Speer, and Baldur von Schirach—received shorter prison sentences. Employing biological metaphors, Best emphasised a doctrine which encouraged members of the Gestapo to view themselves as 'doctors' to the 'national body' in the struggle against "pathogens" and "diseases"; among the implied sicknesses were "communists, Freemasons, and the churches—and above and behind all these stood the Jews". The SD sleeve diamond (SD Raute) insignia was worn on the lower left sleeve, even by SiPo men who were not in the SD. Hitler a Milano: I crimini di Theodor Saevecke capo della Gestapo (Italian Edition) [Luigi Borgomaneri] on Amazon.com. [17] Several Nazi chieftains, among them Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, and Himmler, began a concerted campaign to convince Hitler to take action against Röhm. Frasi simili. There were strict protocols protecting the identity of Gestapo field personnel. [80], In January 1933, Hermann Göring, Hitler's minister without portfolio, was appointed the head of the Prussian Police and began filling the political and intelligence units of the Prussian Secret Police with Nazi Party members. [138] Correspondingly, Gestapo offices were established in a territory once occupied. [74][75] Stauffenberg and his group were shot on 21 July 1944; meanwhile, his fellow conspirators were rounded up by the Gestapo and sent to a concentration camp. Da settembre 1940 fino al luglio 1942, in qualità di leader della Judenreferat presso l'ufficio SD a Parigi, diresse il servizio di controspionaggio nazista e divenne capo della IV sezione J della Gestapo, incaricata della "questione ebraica". Himmler also gained authority over all of Germany's uniformed law enforcement agencies, which were amalgamated into the new Ordnungspolizei (Orpo; Order Police), which became a national agency under SS general Kurt Daluege. Further promotions to Kriminalkommissarin and Kriminalrätin were also possible. [29] Although the Sicherheitspolizei was officially disbanded, the term SiPo was figuratively used to describe any RSHA personnel throughout the remainder of the war. La Gestapo manteneva inoltre diversi ufficiali in ogni campo di concentramento, nello staff di ogni comandante in capo delle SS e della polizia e nel personale degli Einsatzgruppen. Home; fearures. [19] Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmler's SS into action, who then proceeded to murder over 100 of Hitler's identified antagonists. [140] Many of the auxiliary police personnel operating on behalf of German Order Police, the SD, and Gestapo were members of the Schutzmannschaft, which included staffing by Ukrainians, Belorussians, Russians, Estonians, Lithuanians, and Latvians. On 10 August 1944 15 captured partisans held at the prison, hand picked by Theo Saevecke, head of the Gestapo in Milan, were publicly executed at Piazzale Loreto and left on display, as a reprisal for a partisan attack on a German military convoy. [44] For their part, this was the first time the Gestapo operated under its new name since its 26 April 1933 founding in Prussia. [51], In Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben wrote that clergy were watched closely, and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps: "One priest was imprisoned in Dachau for having stated that there were good folk in England too; another suffered the same fate for warning a girl who wanted to marry an S.S. man after abjuring the Catholic faith; yet another because he conducted a service for a deceased communist". Esempi. [128], While the total numbers of Gestapo officials was limited when contrasted against the represented populations, the average Volksgenosse (Nazi term for the "member of the German people") was typically not under observation, so the statistical ratio between Gestapo officials and inhabitants is "largely worthless and of little significance" according to some recent scholars. Diels was appointed with the title of chief of Abteilung Ia (Department 1a) of the Prussian Secret Police. Heydrich, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934, also continued as head of the SS Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst; SD). Files, card, indexes, information and administration (C1), Department D (Occupied Territories), administration for regions outside the, Protectorate affairs, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, regions of Yugoslavia, Greece (D1). [133] Lastly, the Gestapo's effectiveness, while aided by denunciations and the watchful eye of ordinary Germans, was more the result of the co-ordination and co-operation amid the various police organs within Germany, the assistance of the SS, and the support provided by the various Nazi Party organisations; all of them together forming an organised persecution network. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation. Within Germany and areas which were incorporated within the Reich for the purpose of civil administration, local offices of the Gestapo, criminal police, and SD were formally separate. Need to translate "THE ARMS OF THE GESTAPO" from english and use correctly in a sentence? After Heydrich (who was staunchly anti-Catholic and anti-Christian) was assassinated in Prague, his successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, relaxed some of the policies and then disbanded Department IVB (religious opponents) of the Gestapo. [52] Over 2700 Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox clergy were imprisoned at Dachau alone. In addition, thousands of political prisoners throughout Germany—and from 1941, throughout the occupied territories under the Night and Fog Decree—simply disappeared while in Gestapo custody. [115], After 1939, when many Gestapo personnel were called up for war-related work such as service with the Einsatzgruppen, the level of overwork and understaffing at the local offices increased. sport. [31] The specific internal departments of Amt IV were as follows:[90], In 1941 Referat N, the central command office of the Gestapo was formed. Nonetheless, operations performed either by German members of the Gestapo or auxiliaries from willing collaborators of other nationalities were inconsistent in both disposition and effectiveness. [13], By the spring of 1934 Himmler's SS controlled the SD and the Gestapo, but for him, there was still a problem, as technically the SS (and the Gestapo by proxy) was subordinated to the SA, which was under the command of Ernst Röhm. [22] This action effectively merged the police into the SS and removed it from Frick's control. [126] Beyond that, sleep deprivation and various forms of harassment were used as investigative methods. When Church leaders (clergy) voiced their misgiving about the euthanasia program and Nazi racial policies, Hitler intimated that he considered them "traitors to the people" and went so far as to call them "the destroyers of Germany". Storie di antifascismi (Archetipo, 2014) e ha curato Crimini di guerra. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Others were arrested simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose that his dealings might harm society". [155], The Gestapo maintained police detective ranks which were used for all officers, both those who were and who were not concurrently SS members. «Capo di S.M. -Gestapo. capo - translate into English with the Italian-English Dictionary - Cambridge Dictionary Sprezzante dei gravissimi rischi cui si esponeva, affrontò impavido i pericoli e le insidie della polizia nazifascista che lo perseguitava e lo ricercava. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation. Blacky conduce il suo nugolo di diseredati nel sotterraneo e lo riallestisce. Video style 1; Video style 2; Video style 3; Video style 4; Popup video; Autoplay video; Post Gallery. [f], Several terms redirect here. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 03:21. In late 1933, the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the police forces of the German states under his control. [137] Whenever a region came fully under German military occupational jurisdiction, the Gestapo administered all executive actions under the military commander's authority, albeit operating relatively independent of it. [24] Heinrich Müller was at that time the Gestapo operations chief. [43] Meanwhile, the SA and police occupied trade union headquarters, arrested functionaries, confiscated their property and assets; all by design so as to be replaced on 12 May by the German Labor Front (DAF), a Nazi organization placed under the leadership of Robert Ley. [122] As time went by, anonymous denunciations to the Gestapo caused trouble to various NSDAP officials, who often found themselves being investigated by the Gestapo. della Gestapo. Complaints from the Waffen-SS led to change of rank insignia shoulder boards from those of the Waffen-SS to those of the Ordnungspolizei. [109] "V-men", as undercover Gestapo agents were known, were used to infiltrate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and Communist opposition groups, but this was more the exception, not the rule. [59] According to Gestapo case files, the majority of those arrested for homosexuality were males between eighteen and twenty-five years of age. [31] Müller remained the Gestapo Chief. Reports indicate that the Gestapo was caught unaware of this plot as they did not have sufficient protections in place at the appropriate locations nor did they take any preventative steps. The stricter laws did not apply to lesbians as their behavior was never officially criminalized, even though their behaviors were labeled "deviant". Confidential office – hostile foreigners, Occupied territories – France, Belgium, Holland, Norway, Denmark (D4), Department E (Security and counterintelligence), Viktor Harnischfeger (Düsseldorf Gestapo Criminal Commissar). it Venne nuovamente promosso nel 1939 al ruolo di capo della polizia e delle SS di Weimar. [108] In Düsseldorf, the local Gestapo office of only 281 men were responsible for the entire Lower Rhine region, which comprised 4 million people. Crimini di guerra : Il mito del bravo italiano tra repressione del rebellismo e guerra ai civili nei territori occupati by Borgomaneri, Luigi (a cura): and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. Traduzioni ipotizzate. The Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), abbreviated Gestapo (German: [ɡəˈʃtaːpo]; / ɡ ə ˈ s t ɑː p oʊ /), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 31 dic 2020 alle 15:18. [26] The Gestapo was specifically exempted from responsibility to administrative courts, where citizens normally could sue the state to conform to laws. "[132] The Gestapo's effectiveness remained in the ability to "project" omnipotence...they co-opted the assistance of the German population by using denunciations to their advantage; proving in the end a powerful, ruthless and effective organ of terror under the Nazi regime that was seemingly everywhere. [53], Violence and arrest was not confined to that of opposing political parties, membership in trade unions, or those with dissenting religious opinions, but also homosexuality. [25] He answered to Heydrich; Heydrich answered only to Himmler and Himmler answered only to Hitler. [78], Some Germans were convinced that it was their duty to apply all possible expedients to end the war as quickly as possible. One of the more famous schemes, Operation Valkyrie, involved a number of senior German officers and was carried out by Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. [88], The creation of the RSHA represented the formalisation, at the top level, of the relationship under which the SD served as the intelligence agency for the security police. [23] The Gestapo became a national state agency. Le differenze erano solo nc' eranooria, perchè nella pratica la Gestapo nel 1934 fu posta sotto il controllo delle SS. [102], The Canadian historian Robert Gellately wrote that most Gestapo men were not Nazis, but at the same time were not opposed to the Nazi regime, which they were willing to serve, in whatever task they were called upon to perform. Female youth leaders, lawyers, business administrators with experience in social work, female leaders in the Reichsarbeitsdienst and personnel administrators in the Bund Deutscher Mädel were hired as detectives after a one-year course, if they had several years professional experience. Intelligent Mr Toad is obsessed with removing the following information and edit warring to remove it In 1967 in Panama, Francis William Keith was accused of being Heinrich Mueller, the former head of the Gestapo, West German diplomats pressed Panama to extradite to Berlin for trial. This disc identified the operative as a member of the Gestapo without revealing personal information, except when ordered to do so by an authorised official. [98] The vast majority of Gestapo officers came from the police forces of the Weimar Republic; members of the SS, the SA, and the NSDAP also joined the Gestapo but were less numerous. Historian George C. Browder contends that there was a four-part process (authorisation, bolstering, routinisation, and dehumanisation) in effect which legitimised the psycho-social atmosphere conditioning members of the Gestapo to radicalised violence. Bauz, Ingrid; Sigrid Brüggemann; Roland Maier, eds. Josef Berchtold - Very early Party member, and the second Reichsführer-SS from 1926-27. As the horrific events of the holocaust unfold, all will face unthinkable decisions and fates. mostra. [22] Shortly thereafter, Himmler created the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo; Criminal Police), merging it with the Gestapo into the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; Security Police), under Heydrich's command. Yet a significant number of them still worked against the National Socialist government. [33], The power of the Gestapo included the use of what was called, Schutzhaft—"protective custody", a euphemism for the power to imprison people without judicial proceedings. Gestapo. [8] Göring took over the Gestapo in 1934 and urged Hitler to extend the agency's authority throughout Germany. Roger Moorhouse, leading Third Reich historian and best-selling author Superbly scholarly and just as readable. Diario della Memoria. After Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, Hermann Göring—future commander of the Luftwaffe and the number two man in the Nazi Party—was named Interior Minister of Prussia. [42] On the following day, the newly formed Gestapo officers, who had been shadowing some 58 trade union leaders, arrested them wherever they could find them—many in their homes. [54] In 1934, a special Gestapo office was set up in Berlin to deal with homosexuality. Heinrich Muller, il comandante della Gestapo - la polizia segreta di stato del Terzo Reich - e tra i principali responsabili dell'Olocausto, sarebbe sepolto in un cimitero ebraico a Berlino. [150] The IMT also convicted three of the groups: the Nazi leadership corps, the SS (including the SD) and the Gestapo. Default style; Post style 2; Post style 3; Post style 4; Post style 5; Post video. Tema. This represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was (mostly) a Land (state) and local matter. [45] Increasing religious objections to Nazi policies led the Gestapo to carefully monitor church organisations. A similar co-ordination existed in the local offices. We were informed in prison that frequently the Gestapo disguised themselves in prisoner’s clothes in order to spy. During World War II, the Gestapo played a key role in the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe. E’ Hoannes Tuchel, direttore del memorial della Resistenza tedesco, a spiegare: “La salma di Mueller venne tumulata nel 1945 … [124] Most of the political investigations took place between 1933 and 1935 with the all-time high of 57 cases in 1935. Click to read more about Operation Barbie, une Affaire d'Etats by Bertrand Delais. [119], An examination of 213 denunciations in Düsseldorf showed that 37% were motivated by personal conflicts, no motive could be established in 39%, and 24% were motivated by support for the Nazi regime. After another two or three years in that grade, the female detective could advance to Kriminalobersekretärin. The New English Review - A monthly political/cultural magazine with a literary slant. The Nazi administration immediately drew attention to the Jewish question: there were about 75 thousand Jews living in the former Yugoslavia, in Serbia alone there were about 17 thousand. As Evans makes clear, "...it was not the ordinary German people who engaged in surveillance, it was the Gestapo; nothing happened until the Gestapo received a denunciation, and it was the Gestapo's active pursuit of deviance and dissent that was the only thing that gave denunciations meaning. I crimini di Theo Saevecke capo della Gestapo nella versione aggiornata alla luce delle nuove fonti emerse nel corso del processo celebrato dal Tribunale militare di Torino a carico dell’ex capitano delle SS Theo Saevecke, condannato all’ergastolo il 9 giugno 1999 per [102] Over time, membership in the Gestapo included ideological training, particularly once Werner Best assumed a leading role for training in April 1936. Later, nurses, kindergarten teachers, and trained female commercial employees with an aptitude for police work were hired as female detectives after a two-year course as Kriminaloberassistentin and could promote to a Kriminalsekretärin. Il primo capo è diventato R. Diss. [56], Between June 1942 and March 1943, student protests were calling for an end to the Nazi regime. [153], The Gestapo was a secretive plainclothes agency and agents typically wore civilian suits. In an attempt to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath a conference table inside the Wolf's Lair field headquarters. [112] The Gestapo—at times—was overwhelmed with denunciations and most of its time was spent sorting out the credible from the less credible denunciations. [64] Most people quickly learned that open opposition was dangerous since Gestapo informants and agents were widespread. Hitler a Milano. These included the non-violent resistance of Hans and Sophie Scholl, two leaders of the White Rose student group. Göring outflanked him by removing the Prussian political and intelligence departments from the state interior ministry. [18] Both the SD and Gestapo released information concerning an imminent putsch by the SA. [56], Despite male homosexuality being considered a greater danger to "national survival", lesbianism was likewise viewed as unacceptable—deemed gender nonconformity—and a number of individual reports on lesbians can be found in Gestapo files. Gellately argued that it was because of the widespread willingness of Germans to inform on each other to the Gestapo that Germany between 1933 and 1945 was a prime example of panopticism. [86], As a result of its 1936 merger with the Kripo (National criminal police) to form sub-units of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; Security Police), the Gestapo was officially classified as a government agency.

Stagionale Bardonecchia 2020 2021, Heinz Beck Roma, Buon Compleanno Gif Animate Per Whatsapp, Joanne Rhue Harrison, Hero Chi Kung Fu Panda, Quando, Quando Pino Daniele, Partita Croazia Oggi In Tv, Peggiori Cover Band, Webcam Bardolino Centro Nautico,


capo della gestapo

The Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), abbreviated Gestapo (German: [ɡəˈʃtaːpo]; /ɡəˈstɑːpoʊ/),[2] was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe. [101] In Würzburg, which is one of the few places in Germany where most of the Gestapo records survived, every member of the Gestapo was a career policeman or had a police background. [110] The majority of Gestapo informers were not full-term informers working undercover, but were rather ordinary citizens who chose to denounce other people to the Gestapo. del fronte militare della resistenza diede tutto se stesso all’organizzazione. Three—Walther Funk, Rudolf Hess, Erich Raeder—received life terms; and the remaining four—Karl Dönitz, Konstantin von Neurath, Albert Speer, and Baldur von Schirach—received shorter prison sentences. Employing biological metaphors, Best emphasised a doctrine which encouraged members of the Gestapo to view themselves as 'doctors' to the 'national body' in the struggle against "pathogens" and "diseases"; among the implied sicknesses were "communists, Freemasons, and the churches—and above and behind all these stood the Jews". The SD sleeve diamond (SD Raute) insignia was worn on the lower left sleeve, even by SiPo men who were not in the SD. Hitler a Milano: I crimini di Theodor Saevecke capo della Gestapo (Italian Edition) [Luigi Borgomaneri] on Amazon.com. [17] Several Nazi chieftains, among them Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, and Himmler, began a concerted campaign to convince Hitler to take action against Röhm. Frasi simili. There were strict protocols protecting the identity of Gestapo field personnel. [80], In January 1933, Hermann Göring, Hitler's minister without portfolio, was appointed the head of the Prussian Police and began filling the political and intelligence units of the Prussian Secret Police with Nazi Party members. [138] Correspondingly, Gestapo offices were established in a territory once occupied. [74][75] Stauffenberg and his group were shot on 21 July 1944; meanwhile, his fellow conspirators were rounded up by the Gestapo and sent to a concentration camp. Da settembre 1940 fino al luglio 1942, in qualità di leader della Judenreferat presso l'ufficio SD a Parigi, diresse il servizio di controspionaggio nazista e divenne capo della IV sezione J della Gestapo, incaricata della "questione ebraica". Himmler also gained authority over all of Germany's uniformed law enforcement agencies, which were amalgamated into the new Ordnungspolizei (Orpo; Order Police), which became a national agency under SS general Kurt Daluege. Further promotions to Kriminalkommissarin and Kriminalrätin were also possible. [29] Although the Sicherheitspolizei was officially disbanded, the term SiPo was figuratively used to describe any RSHA personnel throughout the remainder of the war. La Gestapo manteneva inoltre diversi ufficiali in ogni campo di concentramento, nello staff di ogni comandante in capo delle SS e della polizia e nel personale degli Einsatzgruppen. Home; fearures. [19] Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmler's SS into action, who then proceeded to murder over 100 of Hitler's identified antagonists. [140] Many of the auxiliary police personnel operating on behalf of German Order Police, the SD, and Gestapo were members of the Schutzmannschaft, which included staffing by Ukrainians, Belorussians, Russians, Estonians, Lithuanians, and Latvians. On 10 August 1944 15 captured partisans held at the prison, hand picked by Theo Saevecke, head of the Gestapo in Milan, were publicly executed at Piazzale Loreto and left on display, as a reprisal for a partisan attack on a German military convoy. [44] For their part, this was the first time the Gestapo operated under its new name since its 26 April 1933 founding in Prussia. [51], In Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben wrote that clergy were watched closely, and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps: "One priest was imprisoned in Dachau for having stated that there were good folk in England too; another suffered the same fate for warning a girl who wanted to marry an S.S. man after abjuring the Catholic faith; yet another because he conducted a service for a deceased communist". Esempi. [128], While the total numbers of Gestapo officials was limited when contrasted against the represented populations, the average Volksgenosse (Nazi term for the "member of the German people") was typically not under observation, so the statistical ratio between Gestapo officials and inhabitants is "largely worthless and of little significance" according to some recent scholars. Diels was appointed with the title of chief of Abteilung Ia (Department 1a) of the Prussian Secret Police. Heydrich, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934, also continued as head of the SS Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst; SD). Files, card, indexes, information and administration (C1), Department D (Occupied Territories), administration for regions outside the, Protectorate affairs, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, regions of Yugoslavia, Greece (D1). [133] Lastly, the Gestapo's effectiveness, while aided by denunciations and the watchful eye of ordinary Germans, was more the result of the co-ordination and co-operation amid the various police organs within Germany, the assistance of the SS, and the support provided by the various Nazi Party organisations; all of them together forming an organised persecution network. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation. Within Germany and areas which were incorporated within the Reich for the purpose of civil administration, local offices of the Gestapo, criminal police, and SD were formally separate. Need to translate "THE ARMS OF THE GESTAPO" from english and use correctly in a sentence? After Heydrich (who was staunchly anti-Catholic and anti-Christian) was assassinated in Prague, his successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, relaxed some of the policies and then disbanded Department IVB (religious opponents) of the Gestapo. [52] Over 2700 Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox clergy were imprisoned at Dachau alone. In addition, thousands of political prisoners throughout Germany—and from 1941, throughout the occupied territories under the Night and Fog Decree—simply disappeared while in Gestapo custody. [115], After 1939, when many Gestapo personnel were called up for war-related work such as service with the Einsatzgruppen, the level of overwork and understaffing at the local offices increased. sport. [31] The specific internal departments of Amt IV were as follows:[90], In 1941 Referat N, the central command office of the Gestapo was formed. Nonetheless, operations performed either by German members of the Gestapo or auxiliaries from willing collaborators of other nationalities were inconsistent in both disposition and effectiveness. [13], By the spring of 1934 Himmler's SS controlled the SD and the Gestapo, but for him, there was still a problem, as technically the SS (and the Gestapo by proxy) was subordinated to the SA, which was under the command of Ernst Röhm. [22] This action effectively merged the police into the SS and removed it from Frick's control. [126] Beyond that, sleep deprivation and various forms of harassment were used as investigative methods. When Church leaders (clergy) voiced their misgiving about the euthanasia program and Nazi racial policies, Hitler intimated that he considered them "traitors to the people" and went so far as to call them "the destroyers of Germany". Storie di antifascismi (Archetipo, 2014) e ha curato Crimini di guerra. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Others were arrested simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose that his dealings might harm society". [155], The Gestapo maintained police detective ranks which were used for all officers, both those who were and who were not concurrently SS members. «Capo di S.M. -Gestapo. capo - translate into English with the Italian-English Dictionary - Cambridge Dictionary Sprezzante dei gravissimi rischi cui si esponeva, affrontò impavido i pericoli e le insidie della polizia nazifascista che lo perseguitava e lo ricercava. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation. Blacky conduce il suo nugolo di diseredati nel sotterraneo e lo riallestisce. Video style 1; Video style 2; Video style 3; Video style 4; Popup video; Autoplay video; Post Gallery. [f], Several terms redirect here. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 03:21. In late 1933, the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the police forces of the German states under his control. [137] Whenever a region came fully under German military occupational jurisdiction, the Gestapo administered all executive actions under the military commander's authority, albeit operating relatively independent of it. [24] Heinrich Müller was at that time the Gestapo operations chief. [43] Meanwhile, the SA and police occupied trade union headquarters, arrested functionaries, confiscated their property and assets; all by design so as to be replaced on 12 May by the German Labor Front (DAF), a Nazi organization placed under the leadership of Robert Ley. [122] As time went by, anonymous denunciations to the Gestapo caused trouble to various NSDAP officials, who often found themselves being investigated by the Gestapo. della Gestapo. Complaints from the Waffen-SS led to change of rank insignia shoulder boards from those of the Waffen-SS to those of the Ordnungspolizei. [109] "V-men", as undercover Gestapo agents were known, were used to infiltrate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and Communist opposition groups, but this was more the exception, not the rule. [59] According to Gestapo case files, the majority of those arrested for homosexuality were males between eighteen and twenty-five years of age. [31] Müller remained the Gestapo Chief. Reports indicate that the Gestapo was caught unaware of this plot as they did not have sufficient protections in place at the appropriate locations nor did they take any preventative steps. The stricter laws did not apply to lesbians as their behavior was never officially criminalized, even though their behaviors were labeled "deviant". Confidential office – hostile foreigners, Occupied territories – France, Belgium, Holland, Norway, Denmark (D4), Department E (Security and counterintelligence), Viktor Harnischfeger (Düsseldorf Gestapo Criminal Commissar). it Venne nuovamente promosso nel 1939 al ruolo di capo della polizia e delle SS di Weimar. [108] In Düsseldorf, the local Gestapo office of only 281 men were responsible for the entire Lower Rhine region, which comprised 4 million people. Crimini di guerra : Il mito del bravo italiano tra repressione del rebellismo e guerra ai civili nei territori occupati by Borgomaneri, Luigi (a cura): and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. Traduzioni ipotizzate. The Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), abbreviated Gestapo (German: [ɡəˈʃtaːpo]; / ɡ ə ˈ s t ɑː p oʊ /), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 31 dic 2020 alle 15:18. [26] The Gestapo was specifically exempted from responsibility to administrative courts, where citizens normally could sue the state to conform to laws. "[132] The Gestapo's effectiveness remained in the ability to "project" omnipotence...they co-opted the assistance of the German population by using denunciations to their advantage; proving in the end a powerful, ruthless and effective organ of terror under the Nazi regime that was seemingly everywhere. [53], Violence and arrest was not confined to that of opposing political parties, membership in trade unions, or those with dissenting religious opinions, but also homosexuality. [25] He answered to Heydrich; Heydrich answered only to Himmler and Himmler answered only to Hitler. [78], Some Germans were convinced that it was their duty to apply all possible expedients to end the war as quickly as possible. One of the more famous schemes, Operation Valkyrie, involved a number of senior German officers and was carried out by Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg. [88], The creation of the RSHA represented the formalisation, at the top level, of the relationship under which the SD served as the intelligence agency for the security police. [23] The Gestapo became a national state agency. Le differenze erano solo nc' eranooria, perchè nella pratica la Gestapo nel 1934 fu posta sotto il controllo delle SS. [102], The Canadian historian Robert Gellately wrote that most Gestapo men were not Nazis, but at the same time were not opposed to the Nazi regime, which they were willing to serve, in whatever task they were called upon to perform. Female youth leaders, lawyers, business administrators with experience in social work, female leaders in the Reichsarbeitsdienst and personnel administrators in the Bund Deutscher Mädel were hired as detectives after a one-year course, if they had several years professional experience. Intelligent Mr Toad is obsessed with removing the following information and edit warring to remove it In 1967 in Panama, Francis William Keith was accused of being Heinrich Mueller, the former head of the Gestapo, West German diplomats pressed Panama to extradite to Berlin for trial. This disc identified the operative as a member of the Gestapo without revealing personal information, except when ordered to do so by an authorised official. [98] The vast majority of Gestapo officers came from the police forces of the Weimar Republic; members of the SS, the SA, and the NSDAP also joined the Gestapo but were less numerous. Historian George C. Browder contends that there was a four-part process (authorisation, bolstering, routinisation, and dehumanisation) in effect which legitimised the psycho-social atmosphere conditioning members of the Gestapo to radicalised violence. Bauz, Ingrid; Sigrid Brüggemann; Roland Maier, eds. Josef Berchtold - Very early Party member, and the second Reichsführer-SS from 1926-27. As the horrific events of the holocaust unfold, all will face unthinkable decisions and fates. mostra. [22] Shortly thereafter, Himmler created the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo; Criminal Police), merging it with the Gestapo into the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; Security Police), under Heydrich's command. Yet a significant number of them still worked against the National Socialist government. [33], The power of the Gestapo included the use of what was called, Schutzhaft—"protective custody", a euphemism for the power to imprison people without judicial proceedings. Gestapo. [8] Göring took over the Gestapo in 1934 and urged Hitler to extend the agency's authority throughout Germany. Roger Moorhouse, leading Third Reich historian and best-selling author Superbly scholarly and just as readable. Diario della Memoria. After Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, Hermann Göring—future commander of the Luftwaffe and the number two man in the Nazi Party—was named Interior Minister of Prussia. [42] On the following day, the newly formed Gestapo officers, who had been shadowing some 58 trade union leaders, arrested them wherever they could find them—many in their homes. [54] In 1934, a special Gestapo office was set up in Berlin to deal with homosexuality. Heinrich Muller, il comandante della Gestapo - la polizia segreta di stato del Terzo Reich - e tra i principali responsabili dell'Olocausto, sarebbe sepolto in un cimitero ebraico a Berlino. [150] The IMT also convicted three of the groups: the Nazi leadership corps, the SS (including the SD) and the Gestapo. Default style; Post style 2; Post style 3; Post style 4; Post style 5; Post video. Tema. This represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was (mostly) a Land (state) and local matter. [45] Increasing religious objections to Nazi policies led the Gestapo to carefully monitor church organisations. A similar co-ordination existed in the local offices. We were informed in prison that frequently the Gestapo disguised themselves in prisoner’s clothes in order to spy. During World War II, the Gestapo played a key role in the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe. E’ Hoannes Tuchel, direttore del memorial della Resistenza tedesco, a spiegare: “La salma di Mueller venne tumulata nel 1945 … [124] Most of the political investigations took place between 1933 and 1935 with the all-time high of 57 cases in 1935. Click to read more about Operation Barbie, une Affaire d'Etats by Bertrand Delais. [119], An examination of 213 denunciations in Düsseldorf showed that 37% were motivated by personal conflicts, no motive could be established in 39%, and 24% were motivated by support for the Nazi regime. After another two or three years in that grade, the female detective could advance to Kriminalobersekretärin. The New English Review - A monthly political/cultural magazine with a literary slant. The Nazi administration immediately drew attention to the Jewish question: there were about 75 thousand Jews living in the former Yugoslavia, in Serbia alone there were about 17 thousand. As Evans makes clear, "...it was not the ordinary German people who engaged in surveillance, it was the Gestapo; nothing happened until the Gestapo received a denunciation, and it was the Gestapo's active pursuit of deviance and dissent that was the only thing that gave denunciations meaning. I crimini di Theo Saevecke capo della Gestapo nella versione aggiornata alla luce delle nuove fonti emerse nel corso del processo celebrato dal Tribunale militare di Torino a carico dell’ex capitano delle SS Theo Saevecke, condannato all’ergastolo il 9 giugno 1999 per [102] Over time, membership in the Gestapo included ideological training, particularly once Werner Best assumed a leading role for training in April 1936. Later, nurses, kindergarten teachers, and trained female commercial employees with an aptitude for police work were hired as female detectives after a two-year course as Kriminaloberassistentin and could promote to a Kriminalsekretärin. Il primo capo è diventato R. Diss. [56], Between June 1942 and March 1943, student protests were calling for an end to the Nazi regime. [153], The Gestapo was a secretive plainclothes agency and agents typically wore civilian suits. In an attempt to assassinate Hitler, Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath a conference table inside the Wolf's Lair field headquarters. [112] The Gestapo—at times—was overwhelmed with denunciations and most of its time was spent sorting out the credible from the less credible denunciations. [64] Most people quickly learned that open opposition was dangerous since Gestapo informants and agents were widespread. Hitler a Milano. These included the non-violent resistance of Hans and Sophie Scholl, two leaders of the White Rose student group. Göring outflanked him by removing the Prussian political and intelligence departments from the state interior ministry. [18] Both the SD and Gestapo released information concerning an imminent putsch by the SA. [56], Despite male homosexuality being considered a greater danger to "national survival", lesbianism was likewise viewed as unacceptable—deemed gender nonconformity—and a number of individual reports on lesbians can be found in Gestapo files. Gellately argued that it was because of the widespread willingness of Germans to inform on each other to the Gestapo that Germany between 1933 and 1945 was a prime example of panopticism. [86], As a result of its 1936 merger with the Kripo (National criminal police) to form sub-units of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; Security Police), the Gestapo was officially classified as a government agency.

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